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1. a) Translate the text paying special attention to the underlined words


^ 1. a) Translate the text paying special attention to the underlined words. The Chemical Weapons Convention at a Glance
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction within a specified period of time. The treaty is of unlimited duration and is far more comprehensive than any prior international agreement on chemical weapons. (The 1925 Geneva Protocol, for instance, only outlaws the use of chemical weapons.)

CWC negotiations started in 1980 in the UN Conference on Disarmament. The convention opened for signature on January 13, 1993, and entered into force on April 29, 1997.

The CWC is implemented by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is headquartered in The Hague with about 500 employees. The OPCW receives states-parties’ declarations, which detail chemical weapons-related activities or materials and relevant industrial activities. After receiving declarations, the OPCW inspects and monitors states-parties’ facilities and activities that are relevant to the convention, aiming to ensure compliance.

The CWC is open to any country and currently has 175 states-parties. Eleven signatories, including Israel, have yet to ratify the convention. ^ Key nonsignatories include North Korea and Syria, both whom the United States suspect have chemical weapons programs. Iraq recently pledged to adhere to the CWC.

PROHIBITIONS
The Chemical Weapons Convention bans:



^ DECLARATION REQUIREMENTS
The CWC requires states-parties to declare in writing to the OPCW their chemical weapons stockpiles, chemical weapons production facilities (CWPFs), relevant chemical industry facilities, and other weapons-related information. This must be done within 30 days of the convention's entry into force for the states-parties.

^ Chemical Weapons Stockpiles – States-parties must declare all their chemical weapons. Chemical weapons stockpiles are broken down into three “categories”:

Other weapons-related declarations states-parties must make include:

Chemical Industry – The CWC requires states-parties to declare chemical industry facilities that produce or use chemicals of concern to the convention. These chemicals are grouped into “schedules,” based on the risk they pose to the convention. A facility producing a Schedule 1 chemical is considered a Schedule 1 facility.

The CWC also requires the declaration of facilities that produce certain nonscheduled chemicals.
^ DESTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
The convention requires states-parties to destroy:

i) Category 1 chemical weapons destruction must start within two years after the CWC enters into force for a state-party. States-parties must destroy 1 percent within three years of the CWC's entry into force, 20 percent within five years, 45 percent within seven years, and 100 percent within 10 years (by April 29, 2007). The OPCW may extend these deadlines due to “exceptional circumstances,” but states-parties must destroy their entire stockpile by April 29, 2012.

ii) Category 2 and 3 chemical weapons destruction must start within one year after the CWC enters into force for a state-party. States-parties must complete destruction by April 29, 2002, with destruction done in equal annual increments.

i) Destruction of CWPFs capable of producing Schedule 1 chemicals must start within one year after the CWC enters into force for a state-party. States-parties must complete destruction by April 29, 2007.

ii) Destruction of other CWPFs must start within one year after the CWC enters into force for a state-party. States-parties must complete destruction by April 29, 2002.

iii) States-parties may request to convert CWPFs to facilities that they can use for nonprohibited purposes. Once their requests are approved, states-parties must complete conversion by April 29, 2003.

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